Saturday, October 10, 2009

THE SKEPTACLE



Since the days of cave paintings, indentations on clay tablets, and the quill pen, the skeptic was there. Through the invention of the ball point pen, typewriter, and now the ubiquitous computer, the skeptic is still around. The skeptic sees the big picture, approaching each subject from all sides at once and takes no prisoners in a virtual tell-all exposé. Somebody has always been there to remind others that things are not necessarily what they seem, and that tradition lives on.

There is always a story behind a story, if you are willing and able to dig in order to get there. And if you apply your gut instincts (not forgetting to wear your thinking cap), what unfolds before you is nothing less than what might be called a "skeptacle." The skeptacle reveals inner workings, hidden motivations, masquerading agendas – things that run deeper and wider than most suspect.

Ah, but suppose we apply our magnifying glass not to the quirky fringes, but to the staid and tefloned status quo? How fiendishly delightful if, instead of watching Houdini debunk the Spiritualists of yore, we could all enjoy The Skeptic calling to account those supposed untouchables in positions of power and influence who, day-by-day get away with unquestioned, unexamined lies and outrageous nonsense! Indeed, such a prospect would be titillating and a healthy antidote to the cynicism of today.

Stay tuned, not for the ghost writer-in-the-sky that lopes along in the footsteps of Drew Pearson or Jack Anderson. Tough times call for even tougher journalistic sleuths – someone along the lines of a Robert Langdon, who comes close to upsetting the Capital City's applecart in Dan Brown's latest novel, The Lost Symbol. Like Langdon, The Skeptic is no nattering nabob but rather a tattling treacler of tropism, patiently mapping the way forward.

© 2009 by J.D. Suss (a/k/a Bro. Jack, O4B)

Saturday, September 26, 2009

THE WEIRD TASK SPECIALIST

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License. SPIRITUAL FOUNDATIONS

From my Catholic upbringing I learned that Christ preached love above all else. I also took to heart the Corporal and Spiritual Works of Mercy. It is via these noble Works that we exercise love and become real human beings. And I thought there is much value in becoming facile at negotiating and transcending the seven deadly sins.

From my immersion in Sufism I learned the way of being heart-centered and the value of knowing oneself via meditating on the annihilation of the false self. And it is in knowing oneself that the false world begins to fall away and we can become real human beings.

From my appreciation of Buddhism I learned mindfulness, simplicity, and tolerance via peaceful acceptance.

From my appreciation of Zen I learned that learning and unlearning are together the sound of one hand clapping, the Oneness that is non-duality.

From a limited exposure to Kabbalism I learned that there exist occult dimensions accessed via an interpretive esoteric grasp of letters, texts, numbers and symbols.

From my appreciation of humanity’s first religion, or Advaita-influenced ruminations, I learned how rich is the root of the soul’s yearning.

From my identification with Native American and other aboriginal peoples I learned that nature is the real world and to live harmoniously with the quotidian rhythms of the natural world is to experience Heaven on Earth.

____________________

ALIENATION AND SEPARATION
Feeling estranged from and unsuited to almost every known career identity, secular and otherwise, I found myself adrift in the world. I resisted committing myself to much of anything because not much that I encountered seemed very “real” to me; that is, the world I had come to know had developed a problem with authenticity. At the same time I also felt a strong yearning for some indefinable connection to something greater than myself, e.g., a loving relationship with someone of the opposite sex, family, community, the deity. I longed for meaning, purpose, creative focus, whatever might foster a sense of truth, goodness, and beauty, of accomplishment, of satisfaction in doing a good day’s work. I sympathized with the underdogs of this world; I identified with those who had failed at becoming successful in normative reality via honorific titles or secure positions, and the materialistic ways in which that is usually measured. On the one hand, I felt that such failure should be worn as a badge of honor; on the other hand, to be poor, powerless, or to feel like a loser on the material level is not all that contributive to one’s sense of mental and emotional stability and self-worth. In fact, when one is an abnormative it can often get difficult to maintain a healthy modicum of confidence and self-esteem. And so, rather than wallow in the despondency side of things, my tendency is to empathize with people from all walks of life that I meet in order to try to feel what it must be like to walk around in their shoes. As a result of my own experience of doing this, I recommend it to all of the so-called disaffected, disenfranchised, and disempowered as a kind of therapeutic regimen. Empathy somehow helps to attenuate the alienation and separation that is so pervasive in modern life; via empathy the inter-relatedness to another is made palpable and the truism “We are One!” can impart a whole new meaning.

WEIRD TASK SPECIALIST
Eventually, by default, I made my own career identity and called myself a Weird Task Specialist. A Weird Task Specialist goes about his or her day doing odd jobs (weird tasks) that are not just for oneself, but include helping others with getting “stuff” done. It does not pay money, necessarily, and one should not hold any expectation of return. There is generally an ambivalence about the making of money, though there is an exception to that rule. When I have my own urgent need I may ask a favor in return. Asking another human being for help teaches us humility, a burying of one’s pride. Getting things done is satisfying enough; helping others to get things done provides a satisfaction that is shared and this makes it a wonderful reward in and of itself. Still, learning to receive graciously is as important as giving generously. When something is done for someone else, it is natural for that someone to feel obliged, to be in that person’s debt; not to be open to receive in return is really a desire to retain a certain power over that other person who has been helped. And so a kind of weird calculus is born wherein favors can be owed and repaid by favors in-kind, whether that is a service, a gift of something in barter, or money.

AN IDEA IS BORN
After years of weird tasks it finally dawned on me that I can provide much more to people from the various skill sets that I possess. Rather than simply painting a fence or running a weird errand, I am also capable of providing legal services, entertaining on the piano, writing, and so on. And yet I always had a problem characterizing myself as someone offering services for money. It seemed seedy, like prostitution. For me, the motivation should not be money, just service. Of course if it helps those benefiting to offer me money, so be it. And so I founded the Sovereign Union of the Spiritual Self as a corporation sole [1], for spiritual, charitable, and educational purposes: spiritual energy is formed in the grace generated at the encounter between oneself and others; the work is charitable and donations are certainly accepted but never expected (though sometimes requested); and the education is in the example one gives to others via the kind and giving manner in which the weird tasks are freely rendered.

By using the corporation sole structure I mean to give perpetual life to the idea and the enterprise that supports it; it does so by being as free as possible from entanglements with the machinations of government and the demands of its bureaucratic institutions. This is what a corporation sole is, a kind of semi-autonomous entity. It is not exempted from the tax code, as is a non-profit or 501(c)(3), it is an exception to that code that is based on the free exercise of religion clause of the United States Constitution. In a democratic society, the People are sovereign and the government is servile to them. The individual person carries within him or herself the spiritual essence of liberty; the union of these many spiritual selves is a greater, spiritual self. The sovereignty of the individual self, when multiplied many times over, becomes the oversoul of liberty in a sacred trust with all life on the Planet. Just as Spirit is a pure love that is life-giving, the Sovereign Union of the Spiritual Self sustains itself through the practices of selflessness, self-reliance, and the sharing of service and resources that it seeks to cultivate in its work.

Being a friend, being honest and helpful, thoughtful and caring – these are qualities most cherished and worth cultivating. Those who participate in the Sovereign Union of the Spiritual Self are adopting a way of life, a way of doing that is, at the same time, a way of being that honors our common humanity. It is hoped that this enterprise shall contribute to the general welfare of the People and the Planet. Even if it does so by small deeds, the shared joy it brings to those otherwise unsuccessful makes successes out of all who are touched by it.

MONEY AND BANKING
Ideally, the use of money (dollars) should be minimized. Why? Money is not controlled by We the People, but by corporatized private banks (viz., “banksters”) that control the government via their own financial and monetary policies [2]. Control the money and you control the People, their possessions, and their institutions. Over-dependence on money implies over-dependence on others who are NOT interested in the welfare of People and the Planet, but only in profits. Thus, human or social capital is to be preferred. Picture an Amish barn-raising, or a surprise makeover of someone’s home, or baskets of food brought to a family in mourning. On the other hand, money is not “evil” in and of itself. So long as there is a connection to the status quo system there will be a connection to and a place for the use of money. And so when offered, money is accepted and deposited into a bank account set up to receive it as earnings of the Sovereign Union of the Spiritual Self, a corporation sole. Perhaps one day the bank in which the deposits are made will be owned by the folks participating in the Sovereign Union of the Spiritual Self who have formed their own credit union-style cooperative.

FUTURE VISION
Being of service to one another can be viewed as a training ground wherein like-minded souls learn to support one another for the purpose of realizing a common vision. That vision is one of entire communities freed from the yoke of debt and the need to participate in an economic system that is inhospitable to the integrity of People and the Planet. That vision includes the founding of multiple, off-the-grid Eco-community Land Trusts ("Ecolts") worldwide, using as models the Global Eco-Village Movement [3] and the Global Eco-Village Network [4], but more particularly Anastasia’s vision [5] of returning the Planet to its natural state of bountiful gardens inhabited by real human beings living free from dominion by any and all overlords. For more information on Ecolts, see, Eco-Community Land Trusts holding title as Corporations Sole: Organizing the Global Ecovillage Movement into a Network of Semi-Autonomous Zones (the post below), bits of which are extracted below:

Eco-communities are examples of sustainable society in which members take responsibility, research, plan, organize, manage, evaluate, and govern well, while promoting the following:

- Much simpler, non-affluent living standards

- Small, highly self-sufficient local economies, mostly using local resources to produce and meet local needs with little trade between regions, let alone between nations

- Highly participatory and co-operative systems

- Alternative technologies that minimize resource and environmental impacts

- A totally different economy, one that is not driven by profit or market forces, in which there is no growth, and in which much of the economic activity does not involve money [6]

A newly suggestive cartographic representation of the contemporary global order, Eco-community Land Trusts ("Ecolts"), especially ones titled as corporations sole, can be a particular affront to state sovereign hosts, as they largely are, in and of themselves, discrete economic and lego-political entities that enjoy their own de facto internal sovereignty of extraterritoriality. A more uniform, internationally validated protocol concerning ecovillage legal structures would likely strengthen horizontal integration, intensify a sense of decentralized unity founded upon common purpose, and foster stewardship of the planet as a garden rich in democratic simplicity, justice, peace, and contentment.
HOW CAN YOU HELP?
The most direct way to help is by taking action to start a self-sustaining community. What are your current skill sets? Do you know any like-minded souls? Good pioneering opportunities? I think what you come to realize is the enormity of taking that step (which is not to say that it can't be done, as anything is possible with enough gumption!).

What I conclude is that by following the path of the weird task specialist, by openly making oneself "available" to others, a corps of like-minded souls begins to gather naturally, almost unintentionally. The result just might be an "unintentional community."

A weird tasker thinks of others much of the time, takes action, follows through on his or her word – in short, does not forget. With materialism and self-absorption ruling the day, the modern tendency is "me first." This is symptomatic of false consciousness: an enthroning of the ego-self, which is not so much a character defect as it is a trap set by our conditioning.

Let me reverse the question and ask what I can do for you? The only difference between us is that I have set up a special enterprise with a bank account for the purpose of dedicating ourselves to the proposition that by loving and helping one another, and with enough gumption, anything’s possible. Articulating an alternative structure to the status quo system IS a beginning. I think what you find is that helping others helps you a lot, until, finally the conclusion makes itself obvious => there are no "others" as such, at least there need not be.

Doing something together (a weird task) has a way of drawing the attention away from one another, or from one’s distractions, onto the "doing"; "being" has a way of manifesting via the doing.

What is expressed in this document is meant to help all of us in our aspirations to be real human beings, to regain our true selves, our humanity and our authenticity.

___________________________
[1] See, Cases on the Corporation Sole (n.d.). Retrieved on September 26, 2009, from http://www.trioid.com/PDFs/Cases_on_the_corporation_sole.pdf

[2] See, e.g., Greider, W. (1989) Secrets of the temple: How the Federal Reserve runs the country. Simon & Schuster: New York; See also, Fitts, Catherine Austin. (February 2, 2009). Financial Coup d’Etat, Retrieved on September 26, 2009, from http://solari.com/blog/?p=2058

[3] Mare, E.C. (2000). A concise history of the global ecovillage movement. Retrieved on September 26, 2009, from http://www.villagedesign.org/vdi_writings/Concise%20History%20Ecovillage.doc

[4] Global Ecovillage Network. (n.d.). Retrieved on September 26, 2009, from http://gen.ecovillage.org/regions/index.html ; Gaia Trust.(n.d.). Retrieved on September 26, 2009, from http://www.gaia.org/gaia

[5] Megre, V. (2008). Ringing Cedars Series (9 Volumes). Ringing Cedars Press: Paia, HI; See, http://www.ringingcedars.com/

[6] Trainer, T. (July 2000). Where are we, where do we want to be, how do we get there? Democracy & Nature, Vol. 6, No. 2

© 2009 by J.D. Suss (a/k/a Bro. Jack, O4B)

Monday, April 13, 2009

Eco-Community Land Trusts holding title as Corporations Sole: Organizing the Global Ecovillage Movement into a Network of Semi-Autonomous Zones

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License.
Abstract: The Global Ecovillage Movement offers a newly suggestive cartographic representation of the contemporary global order. Eco-community Land Trusts ("Ecolts"), especially ones titled as corporations sole, can be a particular affront to state sovereign hosts, as they largely are, in and of themselves, discrete economic and lego-political entities that enjoy their own de facto internal sovereignty of extraterritoriality. My research proposes interfacing with ecovillages and international law policymakers for purposes of developing optimal legal structures and drafting these into a uniform international protocol designed to allay state fears and nurture global acceptance of Ecolts as dynamic models for sustainable society.

Research Proposal
Research topic and main research question:
Developing Legal Structures for the Global Ecovillage Movement: Can a Uniform International Protocol Advance the Viability of Eco-Communities and further Stabilize their Legitimacy and Success via a kind of Decentralized Unity?

Description of proposed research:
The Earth Charter is a global initiative that began in the 1990s. The final version, issued by the Earth Charter Commission in 2000, is composed of sixteen principles steeped in environmental protection, human rights, equitable human development, and peace. It is a kind of “Declaration of Interdependence” or global Bill of Rights. The Earth Charter was drafted in coordination with a legally binding, hard law treaty designed to provide a legal framework for all environmental development law and policy. This hard law treaty is called the International Covenant on Environment and Development.[1] It is being prepared by the Commission on Environmental Law at the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). The IUCN brings together 82 states, 111 government agencies, more than 800 non-governmental organizations, some 10,000 scientists, and experts from 181 countries into a unique worldwide partnership.[2] With the Earth Charter embedded in an international treaty, arguably there is already a framework in place for furthering initiatives on behalf of the Global Ecovillage Movement.[3]

Since the 1960s there have been efforts to establish communes or intentional communities. These were first attempts to propose alternatives to an affluent, industrialized society characterized by mindless consumption and domination by powerful corporate forces causing social fragmentation and destruction of the environment. Especially after E.F. Schumacher’s Small Is Beautiful[4] was published in 1973, there has been a growing recognition of what is referred to as a “limits to growth analysis,” which concludes that a sustainable society must be defined in terms that extend well beyond taking social control of markets; it must focus on notions of simplicity, co-operation, and self-sufficiency, and a long period of negative economic growth culminating in a steady-state economy. By definition this requires autonomous, skilled, conscientious, responsible, and active citizens banding together to cultivate their local ecological, food-growing, fabrication, commercial, social and cultural systems.[5] This is in contrast to external, centralized government at any level imposing its authoritarian relations via top-down control of any kind.

Eco-communities are examples of sustainable society in which members take responsibility, research, plan, organize, manage, evaluate, and govern well, while promoting the following:


- Much simpler, non-affluent living standards
- Small, highly self-sufficient local economies, mostly using local resources to produce and meet local needs with little trade between regions, let alone between nations
- Highly participatory and co-operative systems
- Alternative technologies that minimize resource and environmental impacts
- A totally different economy, one that is not driven by profit or market forces, in which there is no growth, and in which much of the economic activity does not involve money[6]

Today there are many thousands of intentional communities worldwide that comprise the Global Ecovillage Movement.[7] This sustainable alternative path is sometimes referred to as “The Simpler Way.”[8] Such a Way means actually building impressive instances of settlements and economies exhibiting the sorts of lifestyles and values that the limits to growth analysis shows must be the essential elements in a sustainable and just world order; a veritable remaking of local geographies with many ecologically aware, small scale, co-operative, largely self-sufficient economies leading the way. Ecovillages are not part of a larger hierarchy, but rather part of a horizontal pattern of culturally creative customs, extended kinship, contract and alliance, and spiritual affinities fostering a more abundant life.[9] In ecovillages power is in the hands of the people via a radically participatory, inclusive democracy. Ecovillage strategy is about building the required new socio-economic systems right now in a “prefiguring of the new within the old,” before the old society has been swept away. Such settlements worldwide allow a massive socio-political movement with a new consciousness to come into being.

An Eco-community Land Trust ("Ecolt") is a form of common land ownership with a charter based on principles of self-sufficiency and sustainable, ecologically-sound stewardship and use.[10] In my research I wish to explore the titling of the land in the name of a corporation sole, which in turn is held out as an Ecolt administered by a democratically-governed village council which manages the trust via a Land Stewardship Trust Agreement.[11] The trust removes land from the speculative market and facilitates uses such as off-the-grid, inheritable eco-housing and organic garden plots, common village spaces, and open space preservation. Through a renewable long-term lease, individual leaseholders own only those improvements on the land created by their labor and investment (or that of their forebears), and do not own the land itself. Resale agreements pertain only to improvements. This ensures that the land value of a site is not included in future sales, but rather is held in perpetuity by the Ecolt in the name of the corporation sole. The income and property tax exclusions afforded to the eco-community via the Ecolt/corporation sole entities effectively constitute these settlements as semi-autonomous zones within their own sovereign states. Ecolts do not seek to elude formal structures of the state, but rather to attenuate the states’ hierarchical and centralized impositions, such as involuntary taxes and manipulation via systems of, e.g., financial exchange, education, food and energy production.

The use of the corporation sole is somewhat unique as ecovillages are not religious organizations per se. Rather, they share a deeply spiritual sense of sacredness in their relationship to the land, and endeavor to educate their fellow, planetary citizens in sustainable practices of land stewardship,[12] e.g., permaculture[13], doing nonprofit-type, charitable work.[14] The sole corporate overseer is the ecovillage founder with a named successor designate. This is a mostly ceremonial role akin to that of a tribal chief or senior elder.

Successful ecovillages include the Findhorn Community, Scotland; The Farm, Tennessee; Lebensgarten, Germany; Crystal Waters, Australia; Ecovillage Kovcheg, Russia; Gyurufu, Hungary; The Ladakh Project, India; and the Danish Association of Sustainable Communities. Some collaboration between ecovillages already exists. A more uniform, internationally validated protocol concerning ecovillage legal structures would likely strengthen horizontal integration, intensify a sense of decentralized unity founded upon common purpose, and foster stewardship of the planet as a garden rich in democratic simplicity, justice, peace, and contentment.

Literature references:
Atuahene, B. (2005-2006). Land titling: A mode of privatization with the potential to deepen democracy. St. Louis University Law Journal, Vol. 50, p.761.

Bates, S. & Van Ryn, T., eds. (2006). The Land Trust Standards and Practices Guidebook, 2d ed. Land Trust Alliance: Wash., DC.

Christian, D.L. (2003). Creating a life together: Practical tools to grow ecovillages and intentional communities. New Society Publishers: Gabriola Island, BC, Canada.

Communal Studies Association. (2009). Communal Studies: Dedicated to the Understanding and Study of Intentional, Contemporary, Historic and "Utopian" Communities. Retrieved on April 11, 2009, from http://www.communalstudies.info/index.shtml.

Gerstenblith, P. (1995). Associational Structures of Religious Organizations. Brigham Young University Law Review, Vol. 1995, p.439.

Megre, V. (2008). Ringing Cedars Series (9 Volumes). Ringing Cedars Press: Paia, HI; See, http://www.ringingcedars.com/.

Ohara, J.B. (Fall, 1988). The modern corporation sole. Dickinson Law Review, Vol 93, p.23.

Papworth, J. (2006). Village democracy. Societas Imprint Academic: Charlottesville, VA.

Quigley, W.P. (2006). Revolutionary Lawyering: Addressing the root causes of poverty and wealth. Washington University Journal of Law, Vol. 20, p. 101.

Sharshkin, L. (2008). Family gardens: Russia's primary agriculture, Ringing Cedars Press: Paia, HI.

Approach and global time plan over 4 years:
My approach is simple: Listen to and learn from all knowledgeable individuals and their communities. Familiarity with all voices in the Global Ecovillage Movement in collaboration with their legal advisors is, of course, essential. Outreach would also extend to traditional indigenous groups whose non-hierarchical, non-sedentary, semi-nomadic lifeways and originary custom are the bedrock model for sustainable society and culture. Also essential is a thorough and exhaustive grounding in the work to date on sustainable communities in the comparative and international law arenas. This would entail research and analysis of all of the relevant documents available and interfacing with people in governmental and non-governmental organizations who are involved in environmental development law and human rights policy. My aim is to create a syncretic database that is gleaned from interaction with officials, educators, activists, and ordinary folks who are either directly engaged or tangentially influential in ecovillage phenomena and sustainability efforts. I propose immersing myself by actually living in a local ecovillage during the proposed four-year tenure. This would allow my critical intuition to engage a life-long heuristic tendency that inclines toward a phenomenological apprehension of my research area. Through problem-based learning, cohorts of students can collaboratively engage sub-areas of the research to help facilitate their own learning and the research as a whole. My experimental research would by necessity involve travel to and stays of short duration in a variety of ecovillages and intentional communities. I propose using participatory action-research (PAR) as my methodology.

Scientific setting within research school:
By its nature, the Global Ecovillage Movement encompasses eco-friendly scientific aspects that are common to the health, safety and welfare of any and all small human settlements. An obvious sampling of these include shelter, food-growing, energy production, education, fabrication and commercial enterprises. The social sciences of sociology and anthropology also come into play regarding an ecovillage’s social, cultural, and spiritual practices, and their impacts on the surrounding cultural ecology. The subject matter for my research proposal has elements common to various areas of research: human rights, comparative law, ius commune and community law, and cross-border environmental law.

Scientific and social relevance:
If ecovillages are to lead the way toward sustainable society they will require the structural support of a viable legal and jurisprudential underpinning. The community of nations is poised to explicitly posit an unalienable human right to associate and to establish societies into structures of their choice that demonstrably model the Earth Charter principles of environmental protection, human rights, equitable human development, and peace. Doing no harm to and communing with the natural world, while building self-sufficient, more associated individuals within cohesive and just societies is not just good science; arguably it is a social imperative.

[1] Commission on Environmental Law of IUCN – The World Conservation Union in cooperation with the International Council of Environmental Law. (2004). Draft International Law Covenant on Environment and Development, 3rd Ed.. Environmental Policy and Law Paper, No. 31, Rev. 2. Retrieved on April 11, 2009, from http://www.i-c-e-l.org/english/EPLP31EN_rev2.pdf.

[2] Earth Charter Initiative. (n.d.). Earth Charter Initiative. The Earth Charter International Secretariat. Retrieved on April 11, 2009, from http://www.earthcharter.org/.

[3] Mare, E.C. (2000). A concise history of the global ecovillage movement. Retrieved on April 11, 2009, from http://www.villagedesign.org/vdi_writings/Concise%20History%20Ecovillage.doc.

[4] Schumacher, E.F. (1973) Small is beautiful: Economics as if people mattered. Blond & Briggs: London.

[5] Trainer, T. (July 2000). Where are we, where do we want to be, how do we get there? Democracy & Nature, Vol. 6, No. 2.

[6] Ibid., p.272.

[7] Intentional Communities: A Project of the FIC (Fellowship for Intentional Community). (2009) Retrieved on April 11, 2009, from http://www.directory.ic.org/iclist/; Global Ecovillage Network. (n.d.). Retrieved on April 11, 2009, from http://gen.ecovillage.org/regions/index.html; Peters, V. & Stengel, M., eds. (2005) Eurotopia: Directory of intentional communities and ecovilllages in Europe. Retrieved on April 11, 2009, from http://www.eurotopia.de/englverzeichnis.html.

[8] Turner, T.(F.E.) (n.d.). The simpler way: Working for transition from consumer society to a simpler, more cooperative, just and ecologically sustainable society. Retrieved on April 11, 2009, from http://ssis.arts.unsw.edu.au/tsw/.

[9] Dawson, J. (2006). Ecovillages: New frontiers for sustainability. Schumacher Briefing No. 12 (Schumacher Briefings). Chelsea Green Publishing Co.: White River Junction, VT.

[10] Note: “Eco-community Land Trust (“Ecolt”) is my own neologism. For a definition of “Community Land Trust,” see, The E.F. Schumacher Society: Community Land Trusts. (n.d.). Retrieved on April 11, 2009, from http://www.schumachersociety.org/clts.html; Swann, R. (1972). The community land trust: A guide to a new model for land tenure in America. The Center for Community Economic Development: Cambridge, MA.

[11] Banighen, J.T. (1990) Intentional Communities & Land Stewardship Trusts. Trumpeter. Vol. 7, No. 1. Retrieved on April 11, 2009, from http://trumpeter.athabascau.ca/index.php/trumpet/article/view/522/887.

[12] Jackson, H. (2002). Ecovillage living: Restoring the Earth and her people. Chelsea Green Publishing Co.: White River Junction, VT.

[13] Bang, J.M. (2005). Ecovillages: A practical guide to sustainable communities. New Society Publishers: Gabriola Island, BC, Canada.

[14] Gaia Trust.(n.d.). Retrieved on April 11, 2009, from http://www.gaia.org/gaia.